Tuesday, September 3, 2013

WORKING OF MOBILE BUG

This circuit is intended to detect unauthorized use of mobile phones in examination halls, confidential rooms etc. It also helps to detect unauthorized video and audio recordings. It detects the signal from mobile phones even if it is kept in the silent mode. It also detects SMS.

Mobile phone uses RF with a wavelength of 30cm at 872 to 2170 MHz. That is the signal is high frequency with huge energy. When the mobile phone is active, it transmits the signal in the form of sine wave which passes through the space. The encoded audio/video signal contains electromagnetic radiation which is picked up by the receiver in the base station. Mobile phone system is referred to as “Cellular Telephone system” because the coverage area is divided into “cells” each of which has a base station. The transmitter power of the modern 2G antenna in the base station is 20-100 watts.

Purpose of the circuit:

 When a GSM (Global System of Mobile communication) digital phone is transmitting, the signal is time shared with 7 other users. That is at any one second, each of the 8 users on the same frequency is allotted 1/8 of the time and the signal is reconstituted by the receiver to form the speech. Peak power output of a mobile phone corresponds to 2 watts with an average of 250 milli watts of continuous power. Each handset with in a ‘cell’ is allotted a particular frequency for its use. The mobile phone transmits short signals at regular intervals to register its availability to the nearest base station. The network data base stores the information transmitted by the mobile phone. If the mobile phone moves from one cell to another, it will keep the connection with the base station having strongest transmission. Mobile phone always tries to make connection with the available base station. That is why, the back light of the phone turns on intermittently while traveling. This will cause severe battery drain. So in long journeys, battery will flat with in a few hours.

AM Radio uses frequencies between 180 kHz and 1.6 MHz. FM radio uses 88 to 180 MHz. TV uses 470 to 854 MHz. Waves at higher frequencies but with in the RF region is called Micro waves. Mobile phone uses high frequency RF wave in the micro wave region carrying huge amount of electromagnetic energy. That is why burning sensation develops in the ear if the mobile is used for a long period. Just like a micro wave oven, mobile phone is ‘cooking’ the tissues in the ear. RF radiation from the phone causes oscillation of polar molecules like water in the tissues. This generates heat through friction just like the principle of microwave oven. The strongest radiation from the mobile phone is about 2 watts which can make connection with a base station located 2 to 3 km away.

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