Everything in the world is made of matter. Matter is anything that has mass (weight) and occupies space.
Matter can be made up of a group or series of different atoms to form a molecule. These groups of atoms (molecules) are sometimes called compounds. Some types of matter can be broken down to a single atom while still maintaining the properties of the original material. These types of material are called elements.
Matter has three states: Solid, Liquid, and Vapor.
Imagine a lake. Now imagine taking the smallest particle or piece of water from the lake. You would have a single molecule of water, H2O, which is made up of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom.
Not all materials are made up of molecules. Copper, for example, is made up of a single copper atom. These are called elements. Each element is a type of matter that has certain individual characteristics.
|CONDUCTORSA CONDUCTOR is any material that easily allows electrons (electricity) to flow.|
A CONDUCTOR has 1 to 3 free electrons in the outer ring.Because atoms with 1 to 3 electrons in the outer ring are held (bound) loosely to the atom, they can easily move to another atom or make room for more electrons.
Conductor material includes copper and gold.
|SEMICONDUCTORSAny material with exactly 4 free flectrons in the outer orbit are called SEMICONDUCTORS.|
A semiconductor is neither a conductor or insulator.
semiconductor material includes carbon, silicon, and germanium.
These materials are be used in the manufacturer of diodes, transistors, and integrated circuit chips.
Various factors can affect the resistance. These include:
LENGTH of the conductor. The longer the conductor, the higher the resistance.
DIAMETER of the conductor. The narrower the conductor, the higher the resistance.
TEMPERATURE of the material. Depending on the material, most will increase resistance as temperature increases.
PHYSICAL CONDITION (DAMAGE) to the material. Any damage will increase resistance.
TYPE of MATERIAL used. Various materials have a wide range of resistances.
Two basic types of Electricity classifications:
STATIC ELECTRICITY is electricity that is standing still. Voltage potential with NOelectron flow.
DYNAMIC ELECTRICITY is electricity that is in motion. Voltage potential WITH electron flow. Two types of Dynamic electricity exist:
Direct Current (DC) Electron Flow is in only one direction.